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Coevolving. Samudvikling. Og Co-creation.

 

Coevolving betegner en ny forståelse og praktisering af samarbejde mellem virksomheder. Begrebet, som er taget fra det biologiske begreb "coevolution", er lidt svært direkte at oversætte - vel bedst med det noget konstruerede ord samudvikling.
      Begrebet beskrives af Eisenhardt og Galunic: "At last, a way to make synergies work".
Ledere, der praktiserer coevolving, ændrer rutinemæssigt deres netværk af "collaborative links - everything from information exchanges to shared assets to multibusiness strategies.." Det betyder konstant skiftende netværk af relationer, hvor man udnytter de muligheder der kan skabe nye synergier, og dropper de kontakter der ikke er af værdi eller ikke lever op til forventningerne.
      Tesen er at synergi opnås ved coevolving, ikke nødvendigvis som normalt antaget ved samarbejde i traditionel forstand.
      Forskellen mellem det traditionelle samarbejde og coevolving (coevolution) fremgår af tabellen.

Traditional Collaboration Versus Coevolution
  Traditional Collaboration Coevolution
Form of
collaboration
Frozen links
among static business
Shifting webs among
evolving business
Objectives Effiency and
economies of scope
Growth, agility, and
economies of scope
Internal dynamics Collaborate Collaborate and compete
Focus Content of collaboration Content and number
of collaborative links
Corporate role Execute collaboration Set collaborative context
Business role Execute collaboration Drive and execute collaboration
Incentive Varied Self-interest based on
individual business-unit
performance
Business metrics Performance against
budget, the preceding
year, or sister-business performance
Performance against
competitors in growth,
share, and profits
Kilde: Eisenhardt & Galunic, 2000

Den helt afgørende forskel mellem de to samarbejdsmåder ligger i den indstilling, man har til at skabe og vedligeholde sit netværk af samarbejdspartnere. Coevolving eller samudvikling er grundlæggende baseret på naturens (barske) vilkår - jf. nedenstående beskrivelse af coevolution.
      Omfanget af netværket afhænger af og tilpasses løbende efter de aktuelle krav til hurtighed, fleksibilitet og effektivitet. Det kan også udtrykkes på den måde at samudviklende virksomheder - "velcro organisationer" - går efter resultatet, ikke efter samarbejde som sådan, og samudvikling etableres og vedligeholdes kun under forudsætning af at begge forretningsenheder har konkrete

Coevolution beskriver Eisenhardt & Galunic således:
"The term coevolution originated in biology. It refers to successive changes among two or more ecologically interdependent but unique species such that their evolutionary trajectories become intertwined over time. As these species adapt to their environment, they also adapt to one another. The result is an ecosystem of partially interdependent species that adapt together. This interdependence is often symbiotic (each species helps the other), but it can also be commensalist (one species uses the other). Competitive interdependence can emerge as well: one species may drive out the other, or both species may evolve into distinct, noncompetitive niches. Interdependence can change, too, such as when external factors like the climate or geology shift.
A classic example of symbiotic coevolution is the acacia tree and the pseudomyrmex ant species. Ants need acacias for nectar and shelter. Acacias depend on the ants stinging to protect them from herbivores. Over time, the acacia has evolved to make it easy for the ants to hollow out thorns for shelter and to have access to its flowers. Similarly, the ants have evolved into a shape that makes it easier to enter the acacia flower. Together, the species are better off than they would be if they didn't collaborate."

Co-creation
Produktudvikling - eller bare udvikling - i samarbejde. Udtrykket co-creation er nok mest anvendt i forbindelse med at virksomheden inddrager kunden i udviklingsarbejdet (produktudviklingen), men er også det centrale element i open source softwareudviklingen.

For lidt og for meget samarbejde ...
Brown og Eisenhardt beskæftiger sig med dilemmaet mellem "collaborative synergies and individual success". Det er ligesom med Tour de France løbet. Det gælder om at finde balancen mellem det individuelle løb og samarbejdet uden at det ene kvæler det andet. Udtrykket "coadaptation" betegner processen hvor "systems of related agents take mutual advantage of each other in order to change more effectively, yet still be adaptive in each agent's particular situation. For example, any particular animal in a species can adapt to its own surroundings, but it can also learn from other animals in its species and coordinate with them in mutually beneficial activities - like hunting in packs. The result is complicated yet successful behavior. As in any edge-of-chaos process, coadaptation is most effective when poised on the edge of chaos between too much and too little structure."

Se også mediation og partnering.

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